Plasma Combustion
Liquids and Solid Particles combust in much different ways.

Liquids combust sequentially by burning the surface of the liquids and continue to "burn" towards the center.  Some liquids don't combust at all, but oxidize very slowly, similar to corrosion of metals.  Volatile liquids, like kerosene or gasoline, ignite in a spreading, serial combustion event, like combustion in internal combustion engine. Complete combustion is almost impossible to achieve. As actual combustion reactions come to equilibrium, a wide variety of major and minor species will be present such as carbon monoxide and pure carbon (soot or ash). Additionally, any combustion in atmospheric air, which is 78 percent nitrogen, will also create small amounts of several forms of nitrogen oxide, commonly referred to as NOx, at high temperatures

Fluidizable powders, like Turbine BioFuel, ionize into a Plasma Stream, combusting greater volumes of fuel in a single "wave" of heat content release.  See the video playing.  Note that the entire powder mass ignites as a cloud. In complete combustion, the reactant burns in oxygen, producing a limited number of products. When a hydrocarbon burns in oxygen, the reaction will only yield carbon dioxide and water. When elements are burned, the products are primarily the most common oxides. Carbon will yield carbon dioxide, nitrogen will yield nitrogen dioxide, sulfur will yield sulfur dioxide, and iron will yield iron(III) oxide. Turbine BioFuel is made from selected biomass source with only plant matter.  That limits or eliminates harmful emissions common to petrochemical based fuels.

© 2008 - 2017 Turbine BioFuel® property of Compact Contractors for America, LLC.
Potential energy predicts combustion creating thrust. However, the objective is thrust.  Liquid fuels have uncombusted hydrocarbons that are wasted potential energy.  Powders appear to have a greater conversion of energy to thrust. The picture to the left shows TBF fuel powering an SG-18 jet engine.  Note the unique flame pattern in the combustion chamber.  How much greater conversion of energy to thrust has yet to be quantified.